Life as a highly-organized structure is a magic in this disordered world, and life organizes disorderly to orderly structure regardless higher or lower organisms. Since the Chordate came into being, heart as an organ was assembled to support advanced features of lives, which orient lives from ocean to the land and evolves into various lives in this world. Heart evolved into four heart cavities (from two cavities), and formed complex structures. In human heart, cardiomyocytes distribute orderly in multilayer but contract into different orientation. However, cardiomyocytes exhibited orderly steps of contraction and relaxation under synchronous electrical activating, which following the valves rhythmic switching activities. All of these constitute a complex and redundant active pump, which is unmatched by any kind of artificial pump at present. The human heart can not only increase the cardiac output to maintain the blood supply demand during strenuous activity, but also switch to the "automatic" mode during sleep. Its sophistication and redundancy are amazing!
However, heart will also experience exhaustion and injury, leading to the health killer- severe heart failure. Heart failure involves cardiomyocyte injury, stiffness, and abnormalities in electrical activities, energy metabolism and structure, all of which will finally present as systolic or diastolic dysfunction. Since heart failure is intertwined with various etiologies such as gene mutation, dysregulated gene expression, abnormal protein structure or function, it is a rather complicated and multifaceted condition requiring cross-disciplinary cooperation. Nowadays, traditional pathophysiological experiment and clinical research are not the only ways to the truth of the disease, we should integrate the study from molecular, cell, tissue and organic whole aspects to unveil the pathological process and mechanism of the disease.
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